Water purifier buying guide
This Water Purifier Buying Guide will help you identify the right water purifier for you.
Prior to discussing the various water purification technologies and which one best suits your needs, it is crucial to comprehend the various impurities frequently found in drinking water. Only then will we be able to comprehend the need for water purifiers of all different types.
Because drinking purified and untainted water has so many positive effects on your health, we’re fairly certain you’re convinced that every dollar you spend on a great water purifier is money well spent.
Even without that, there are literally dozens of reasons for you to shop for and bring home the best water purifier. For example, they guarantee:
Protection from potentially fatal waterborne diseases brought on by contaminated water
Tap water no longer has that odd chlorine and calcium carbonate taste, so your coffee won’t be ruined!
On the surface of your kitchen utensils, there should be few to no scratches, spottings, or scaling.
Different Types of Impurities Found Commonly in Drinking Water
The source and method of water distribution have a significant impact on the impurities that are present in the drinking water that enters your home. Lakes, rivers, bore wells, rainwater harvesting systems, piped municipal corporation supplies, water tankers, and other sources are among the most popular sources of drinking water.
The source of the water affects the purity of the water as well as its level of impurities, including harmful pollutants, chemicals, biological impurities like bacteria and viruses, and hardness.
Most common types of impurities in water:
The type of impurity is Undissolved solids such as sand and mud and the common source comes from rivers, borewells, or piped water where pipes have been damaged the effect on drinking this water is Muddy or turbid appearance.
The type of impurity is Dissolved inorganic salts like Sodium & Potassium and the common source comes from Borewells and seawater effects of drinking this is a Salty or brackish taste.
When compared to water from bore wells, water from lakes, rivers, and harvested rainwater typically has a lower TDS level.
In addition to having a high TDS in general, borewells or groundwater may also have harmful chemical impurities like lead, arsenic, etc.
Identify the Water Type – Soft or Hard Water
The amount of dissolved solids in water determines whether it is soft or hard. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), which are measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (PPM), are thought to indicate the degree of hardness.
Hard water is most likely present if it is obtained from deep bore wells, water tankers, or underground sources.
Now, dissolved solids like calcium, magnesium, heavy metals, fluorides, and arsenic are present in fairly high concentrations in hard water. Hard water is unfit for human consumption because of all these dissolved impurities.
On the other hand, soft water is generally referred to as water that comes from rivers, rainwater harvesting systems, lakes, and municipally managed storage and delivery systems. Even though soft water is less hazardous, it still needs to be purified before it can eventually be considered safe for human consumption.
Water Purifier Types, and Mapping them to Your Water Type
1. Reverse Osmosis (RO) Purifiers
We must first comprehend osmosis in order to understand how RO functions.
In a typical osmosis process, water naturally passes through a membrane from an area with low solute concentration (low TDS level) to an area with a high solute concentration (high TDS level).
The membrane’s pores are extremely small (about 0.0001 microns), allowing water molecules to pass through while trapping the tiniest bacteria and dissolved impurities.
What is Reverse Osmosis & How Does it Work?
Reverse osmosis (RO) does exactly what its name implies: it pushes water molecules from an area with a higher TDS level to one with a lower TDS level. This is accomplished by using a water pump to reverse the natural flow of water by applying external pressure.
High-pressure water with impurities or a high TDS is pumped into the RO chamber; this forces the water molecules to the other side of the semi-permeable membrane while leaving the dissolved solids and other impurities behind.
All of the dissolved solids and impurities, along with some input water, are discharged through a different outlet and are also referred to as RO wastewater.
Therefore, RO purifiers are always advised for cleaning the water that has a high TDS level. When compared to the input water, the RO purifier’s output drinking water has a very low TDS level.
Some Drawbacks of RO Technology
Requires Electricity RO purifiers need electricity to operate because a high-pressure electrical water pump is used to apply external pressure to the input water.
Water wastage occurs when a sizable portion of the input water is discharged along with the dissolved impurities. For every liter of purified water produced by a RO filter, 3 liters of wastewater are typically produced.
2. Ultrafiltration (UF)
Similar to RO, ultrafiltration also purifies water using a semi-permeable membrane.
After reading the first sentence, you must be wondering what the difference between RO and UF is since they both use the same technique to purify water.
Compared to RO, which uses a membrane with very small pores, ultrafiltration (UF) uses a membrane with much larger pores (approx. 0.01 microns) (appx. 0.0001 microns).
Because the membrane has much larger pores and water can pass through it naturally using the force of gravity, Ultrafiltration has the advantage that UF purifiers can operate without electricity. This indicates that no water pump or external pressure is necessary. Additionally, there is no water waste because UF purifiers do not hold back any water.
However, there are some restrictions to using UF purifiers; due to larger pore sizes, UF can only remove larger impurities and undissolved solids. It is unable to lower the TDS level or remove dissolved solids. Therefore, UF purifiers are ineffective for treating hard water or water with a high TDS level.
3. Ultraviolet (UV) Purification
Ultraviolet or UV purification, as the name implies, uses ultraviolet rays to clean water.
High-intensity UV rays are used in UV purifiers to kill or inactivate disease-causing bacteria and viruses in the water. UV purifiers, however, are unable to eliminate any impurities or chemicals from water, whether they are dissolved or not.
Because of this, the majority of UV purifiers on the market use sediment filters to get rid of impurities that aren’t dissolved in water and activated carbon filters to get rid of chlorine and some other dissolved impurities.
In areas where the water source has a low level of TDS, UV water purifiers are therefore only advised. You can use this method if the water is muddy and has a low TDS level but is contaminated with bacteria and viruses.
4. Tap/Faucet Mounted Filters or Gravity-Based Purifiers
These kinds of filters or purifiers are the most straightforward to use and offer the most fundamental water filtration.
These filters typically consist of sediment filters or sediment filters plus activated carbon filters, which can filter out large, non-dissolved impurities like mud and sand as well as some chemicals and microorganisms. Since they are so tiny, tap/faucet filters can be installed right on taps.
The more sophisticated version of tap/faucet filters are gravity-based storage purifiers. These purifiers have an integrated storage tank to hold input/impure water and provide slightly more advanced purification.
The majority of gravity-based water purifiers on the Indian market today have two separate storage tanks for unfiltered and filtered water, respectively.
Which Water Purifier Should I Choose?
You must have heard many people refer to water purifiers as RO because RO technology has become synonymous with them (like the brand Xerox has become synonymous with photocopying).
Due to this, when we discuss purchasing a water purifier, the majority of people assume that RO water purifiers should be bought automatically without taking into account the most crucial factors, such as the source of water and the TDS level of input water.
If you’ve read through the entire discussion up to this point, you already know that RO purification is only necessary when the water entering your home or place of business has a high TDS value (generally higher than 500 ppm).
Today’s market offers a variety of water purifiers, from basic tap/faucet filters and gravity-based units to UF, UV, RO, and their combinations. The difficulty of choosing the best purifier for your home or office has increased due to the vast array of available technologies and hundreds of different water purifier models from various brands.
As was previously mentioned, you should only purchase a RO purifier if the water that needs to be purified has a high TDS level. The maximum TDS limit for water that is safe to drink has been set at 500 ppm by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
If the TDS level is less than 500 ppm, there is no reason whatsoever to use a RO purifier. Because a RO purifier will further reduce the TDS in your water if it already has low TDS levels. This implies that the essential minerals like calcium and magnesium that are necessary for our good health will not be present in the purified water.
Check the incoming water for turbidity (clarity), a muddy appearance, or the presence of biological impurities like bacteria and viruses if the TDS level is less than 500 ppm.
Although manufacturers of water purifiers attempt to set their products apart from rivals by showcasing cutting-edge water purification technologies, the majority of them actually combines three main purification techniques: reverse osmosis (RO), ultraviolet (UV), and ultrafiltration (UF) (Ultrafiltration).
Main Components of RO Water Purifier
Sediment Pre-filter: The input water is filtered using a pre-sediment filter in the first stage of purification. Pre-sediment filter reduces maintenance costs by extending the life of the RO/UF membrane in addition to removing fine and coarse particulate impurities and dirt. If this is not a standard feature of the purifier, it can also be purchased separately.
Activated Carbon Pre-filter: This filter clears the water of chlorine and organic impurities like dangerous pesticides. Additionally, the pre-activated filter’s carbon adsorbs the water’s foul tastes and odors.
UV Filter: UV filter purifies water by using a high-intensity UV bulb to destroy or inactivate viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
RO/UF membranes: Using an internal water pump, water is pumped at high pressure into the RO membrane. Hardness, dissolved salts, pesticides, and heavy metals like lead, arsenic, and mercury are all removed by the RO membrane. Additionally, it eliminates microbial pollutants like bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and cysts. Although it functions similarly to the RO membrane, the UF membrane does not filter out dissolved solids. The output water from both UF and RO membranes is combined in some purifiers in order to regulate the TDS level of the purified water.
TDS controller: A TDS controller is used to regulate the water’s TDS level. In addition to bad impurities, the RO process also removes important minerals like calcium and magnesium. The final mix of water from the RO membrane (low TDS) and UF membrane (normal TDS) is adjusted by the TDS controller to retain adequate amounts of necessary minerals.
Storage Tank: Water purification is stored in this tank for later use. Make sure the storage tank is constructed of non-toxic, food-grade materials. A stainless steel water storage tank is now included with some high-end water purifiers. Additionally, you ought to examine the storage tank’s capacity.
Display: A basic display for on/off, a tank full, etc. is included with the majority of RO water purifiers. Additionally, some sophisticated purifiers have alerts for faults, filter changes, UV failure, TDS level indicators, purity indicators, etc.
Frequently Asked Question
What should I know before buying a water purifier?
Considerations to Make Before Purchasing a Water Purifier
Testing the water quality is necessary because certain contaminants are removed by water purifiers.
You Must Replace the Filters On a Regular Basis.
Take into account the price of replacing filters.
Take into account how much water your family consumes.
Which type of water purifier is best for home?
AquaSure by Aquaguard Amaze RO+UV+MTDS is the best non-electric water purification brand that can operate without electricity for lengthy periods of time, saving electricity and money. The HUL Pureit is the best RO water purifier because it uses less water than its rivals by at least 40 glasses.
Which is better RO or aquaguard?
Pre-Filtration, reverse osmosis, and post-filtration are the three stages of the RO purification process. The 6-stage purification procedure used by Aquaguard. To get rid of toxins and impurities, it employs numerous filters. A nano cream filter is used by them to remove impurities and toxins.
Which RO is best in the budget?
Plus Kent Supreme is one of the best.
Reverse osmosis, a UV lamp to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms, an ultrafilter, and TDS control are all included with the RO. The purified water is suitable for consumers who live in individual homes and has a pleasant taste. The RO can purify 20 litres of water per hour and has an 8L storage tank.
Which is low maintenance water purifier?
It’s very general everyone doesn’t have time to maintain water purifiers on daily bases, simply you can look for the low maintenance water purifier. Finding the best water purifiers that require little maintenance, like Pureit’s Classic G2 Mineral RO+UV, Pureit Marvella UV G2, and Pureit Advanced Max Mineral RO+UV+MF+MP, is therefore advised.